Grants / RFBR 05-05-64929

Project completed.
RFBR # 05-05-64929

Late Pleistocene extreme floodings in temporal Eurasia: paleohydrological reconstructions, water sources and influence on the Early Man

Final report

The new before unknown event Extreme Inundations Epoch — was found in Latest Pleistocene of the Ponto-Caspian basin. It was extremal hydrologic events during Late Glacial in coastal plains, river valleys, slopes and interfluwials. It was done back ground of exclusive and extremal character of the Khvalynean transgression and related events. Extreme inundations on the NW Eurasia territory correlated with global events: LGM deglaciation stages

Paleohydrological reconstruction of marine inundations was elaborate: Khvalynean transgressions of the Caspian and superfloods. Water source for extreme inundations event was reconstructed: permafrost melting, precipitations increase, river superfloods in combination with low evaporation during cold glacial climate.

Extreme inundation events effected on Paleolithic populations by barriers for cultural exchanges and isolation northern tribes from southern ones, as reflected on archaeological cultural layers.

Influence of Khvalynean transgression on environment of Early Men in Manych valley, basing on lithology and paleontology of culture layers Late Paleolithic sites Yulovsky is revealed. The Early Men lived here 17-15 thousand years ago in a coastal zone of a fresh-water basin during low standing water. During high standing, possibly, migrated above on the slopes. Within the limits Yulovskaia site cyclic, layered coastal lake environment is reconstructed , with a rank of water level oscillations close to annual. Duration of inhabit of the early Men on site calculated on the base of banded layer rings was not less than 50-60 years.

Influences of the Inundation Epoch on Early Man was studied in Upper Paleolithic sites: Kamennaia Balka (Lower Don valley), Stalingradskaia (Volga valley) and Kosoutsy (Middle Dniester valley). Here it was recovered evidences of the great slope water flow and Manych spillway water flow.

Influence of functioning of passage Manych-Kerch strait on interruption of migrations of the paleolithic population to Russian plain from the south (Caucasus and the Near East) is shown. It has proved to be true archeologic materials which testify to disappearance of geometrical microtools among chart tools and the termination of cultural exchange of inhabitants of Russian plain with the Near East. Evidence of use of water resources of passage Manych (Caspian dreissena) in a late paleolith of the Stone Beam are revealed.

Polylandscape concept of marine, river, slope and interfluvial inundations was elaborated, including Cascade of Eurasian lake-marine, basins river superfloods, slope solifluction flows and interfluvial thermocarst lake inundations.

Use of geoinformatics has allowed to create the digital models of a relief formed a basis for qualitatively new paleohydrological reconstruction.

Paleohydrological reconstruction of Khvalynean flood basin and some spillways and recovered temporal and causal relations. Paleohydrological reconstruction of Aral-Sarykamysh marine basin was elaborated. Water sources for flood events was found: incrising of precipitations, megafloods, slope water flow by solufluction, river drainage basin increasing in the Central Asia. Water flow across Manych valley during Talgin osculation (+35m) was calculated.

Critical revue of the existing hypotheses on flood events in the Ponto-Caspian basin was provided. Black Sea Flood by Ryan and Pittman (1997), as well as Dimitrov's Noahs Flood (2002) are not accepted, in reason of the great controversies with new facts, especially with recovered Bosphorus fan delta on the Marmara Sea shelf. Also calculation of water discharge across of Manych spillway on the base of space image are not proved. Our field investigations recovered water discharge in Zunda-Tolga gorge was not more 10-50 000 m3/sec or 20-50 times less than previous one by V. Baker (1994).